Stone Materials Material Forms Applications Material Material Handling Machinery Overview Edge Profiles Surface Finish TradeShow Calender TradeShow Statistics Stone Publications Stone Associations Surface Finish


PEI Water Obsorption


No Image

PEI Wear Rating

Porcelain Enamel Institute (PEI) Wear Rating
Indicates tile's resistance to abrasion:reflects suitability for floor traffic.
Icon:Bit drilling into a tile
PEI I AND II: Lowest resistance .Suitable for floors(walls only).
PEI III:Moderate resistance.Suitable for all residential uses.
PEI IV: High resistance.Suitable for all residential and light commercial uses.
PEI IV+: Highest resistance.Suitable for all residential and all commercial and heavy traffic uses.

Note: PEI wear ratings apply to glazed ceramic floor tiles only. more>>

No Image

Water Absorption (W.A.)

A tile’s rate of water absorption: weight of water absorbed as percentage of tile weight.Icon: Umbrella shielding rain
Nonvitreous: High absorption (more than 7% water absorbed). Not suitable for outdoor use or for rooms with a lot of moisture, such as bathrooms.
Semivitreous: Moderate absorption (3% - 7% water absorbed). Not suitable for outdoor use or for wet rooms, such as bathrooms.
Vitreous: Low absorption (0.5% - 3% water absorbed). Suitable for outdoor use and for wet rooms, such as bathrooms.
Impervious: Lowest absorption (less than 0.5% water absorbed). Suitable for all interior and exterior uses.
Notes:
A. Glazed tiles are resistant to water at the tile surface, but susceptible at the edges.
B. All grouts, except epoxies, will allow some moisture absorption.
C. Only vitreous and impervious tiles should be used outdoors or in bathrooms.
D. Most glazed tile is ?red to give an absorption rate of less than or equal to 3%, which places them in a frost-proof category (vitreous and impervious).
E. Glazed white body (talc clay) wall tiles are nonvitreous with more than 7% absorption. If these tiles become saturated and are installed in an exterior freeze environment, the tiles will be damaged by the freeze-thaw cycle, resulting in cracked tile or spalling (chipping or crumbling) of the glaze ?nish.
In general, the more resistant a tile is to water, the more it will cost. Impervious and vitreous tiles tend to be more expensive than semivitreous and nonvitreous tiles. more>>



Frost Tone


No Image

Frost

Indicates presence or lack of frost resistance or whether tiles not directly exposed to the elements will crack because of freeze-thaw cycles. Frost rating is not applicable if tiles will be used indoors.
Icon: Snow?ake; if present, indicates tiles are frost-resistant. more>>

No Image

Tone

Multishaded grid indicating that the carton contains variations in tone from tile to tile, which is true for most types of tile, except for pure colors, such as black and white.. more>>



Coefficient of Friction(Dry)(static cof) Coefficient of Friction(Wet)(dynamic cof)


No Image
ASTM C1028 is a test to determine the coefficient of friction for manufactured tiles or for installed tiles under both wet and dry conditions. A minimum ASTM C1028 test value may be required as part of an engineer’s or architect’s project specification for floor tile. A value of .5 is considered acceptable for most applications. more>>

No Image


more>>



Grout Joint Recommendation  Shade Variation Chemical Resistance


No Image

Grout Joint Recommendation

I. Introduction
A. With all of the field reports CTI has written it is believed yet another one is needed. This field report is on the grout joints in our tile installations and the width of the grout joints. This is because of numerous phone calls asking about the recommended width of the grout joints.
II. Discussion
A. The width of the grout joints is one of the items that should be selected by the owner. The width of the grout joint should not be left to the whim of the installer.
B. The grout joint is only a small percentage of the square footage of an installation but what an important percentage it is. The grout and the grouting can enhance the final appearance of the installation or it can detract from the appearance of the final installation.
III. Conclusion
A. If recommend widths are wanted consider the following:
1. Decorative handcrafted tile 3/8 to 1/2 inch.
2. Mounted, handcrafted tile in 3 x 3 and 4 x 4 as mounted, 1/4 inch.
3. Glazed wall tile, as dictated by the lugs or 1/16 inch.
4. Ceramic mosaic tile as mounted, usually 1/16 inch.
5. Quarry tile and paver tile 1/4 inch.
6. Large sized of precision made tile, such as 24 x 24 inches, 3/16 to 1/4 inch.
7. Large sizes of handcrafted tile 1/2 to 3/4 inch.
8. Marble tile and granite tile 1/16 inch minimum and 3/16 inch maximum.

Shade Variation

V-1 Uniform (minimal to no difference)
V-2 Slight Variation (distinguishable differences)
V-3 Moderate Variation (differences in pattern & color from tile to tile)
V-4 Substantial Variation (random, sometimes dramatic differences) more>>

No Image
REAGENT
Lactic Acid-85%
Acetic Acid-10%
Formic Acid-5%
Citric Acid-50%
Tartaric Acid-50%
Tannic Acid-50%
Olejic Acid-50%
Olejic Acid-50%
Phosphoric Acid-80%
Hydrofluoric Acid-10%
Sulfuric Acid-50%
Nitric Acid-20%
Hydrochloric Acid-36.5%
Bleach
Sodium Hydroxide
Xylene
Ethyl Alcohol
Mineral Spirits
Toluene
Methylene Chloride more>>



Stain Resistance


No Image
Method applicable to all working surface of ceramic tiles to determine their resistance to stains.  Each staining agent must remain on at least 5 testing samples, for at least 24 hours.  Removal of the staining agent takes place in subsequent steps using various agents and cleaning procedures.
Class 5      Stain removed with hot water
Class 4      Stain removed with weak cleaner
Class 3      Stain removed with strong cleaner
Class 2      Stain removed with specific solvents
Class 1      Stain not removedmore>>